I would find the best practices of lightning components, which makes the performance improvement in salesforce.
There are several posts from many bloggers, and salesforce already explained reg. same
Lightning Components run at the client-side, on a single page (where they are created and destroyed as needed), and other components that work on the same data. Salesforce has done an amazing job with creating the Lightning Component framework.
Each of the above points clearly explained in below developer.salesforce.com article
Also to conclude
The performance of an application is impacted by many different factors. The performance optimization techniques described in this article are general guidelines that should help you build faster and more responsive applications. Try them out in your application, and let us know what your favorite performance optimization techniques are.
Thanks for Reading..